Tuesday, December 12, 2017

Homeschooling #SOL17

Sunday one of those "genius" quizzes popped up on my Facebook feed. This one baited vulnerable members of the FB community by saying, "No American Has Ever Scored A 20/20 On This Quiz Without Cheating." A former student challenged this claim and indicated she learned the facts from the quiz her senior year in government, for which she thanked her teacher.

Curious, I opened the quiz and soon realized the questions posed represented basic information about American history; the quiz even included a question about Mike Pence, our vice president, and one about what we call the first ten amendments to the constitution--The Bill of Rights. A question about Abraham Lincoln claimed he "had great taste in hats." 

Clearly, this quiz is one of those click-bait things, but the responses of former students to it as well as the questions themselves prompted me to think about how and when I learned this basic factual information. Except for the question about Vice President Pence, I learned the history necessary for answering the questions long before my senior year in high school, which is when my former students take government. Indeed, much of what I know about U.S. History and our government I learned in my eighth grade U. S. History class. 

The rest, particularly the history of each state, I learned at home. But my "homeschooling" did not exist within the confines of a designated "classroom" in our house. Homeschooling as we think about it these days did not exist during my childhood. My homeschool classroom occupied a small area of the dining room floor beside an old bookshelf. That shelf housed several sets of specialized encyclopedias purchased by my father. 

We had a set of medical encyclopedias designed for home use. I imagine they function the way Web MD does now. I sat for hours reading them to see if I had an undiagnosed illness. Driven by middle-child-syndrome, I learned about the skeletal, circulatory, and muscular systems in my quest for a disease to match my symptoms. 

We also had a set of state encyclopedias. That's how I learned Hawaii was the last state admitted to the union, a question on the FB quiz. But I also studied the state flags, each state's journey to statehood, their manufacturing and agricultural makeup, and the state flowers, birds, and mottos by reading those colorful books. 

Similarly, I read the Bible Story Books, another set of encyclopedias on the shelf, and they helped me understand the KJV version of the bible, which has informed my reading of Shakespeare over the years. They also cemented my understanding of faith

Sometimes I read things my conservative father preferred I not know. Such is the case with an article in Life Magazine about tribes in South America or Africa. I fixated on the pictures of painted and naked bodies. I didn't try to hide my curiosity as I read my way through a cultural awakening, but my father became angry when he caught me with the magazine. 

One of the biggest struggles I face as an educator is the absence of homeschooling among my students, particularly those in my Communication 1101 and speech classes, both of which require knowledge of current events and government policies for successful completion of the class. Sadly, most students have little prior knowledge about issues that impact their lives. Simply, most don't read the world. They only read what school mandates. 

They lack the homeschooling experiences I had as a child. Homeschooling lays the foundation for knowledge acquisition. Without homeschooling, the kind that promotes curiosity reading, most students are adrift.  

I filled my homeschooling time reading, and I had a particular lust for historical and scientific knowledge during my elementary years. Moreover, my father insisted I listen to the news, so I knew about the Vietnam War while it was happening, which doesn't mean I understood all the political and cultural implications of it, only that I had a foundation of knowledge. These days parents shield their children form bad news in a misguided attempt to protect them. Consequently, many students lack sufficient coping skills for dealing with complicated personal and world problems.

It's this knowledge foundation that a recent article in The New York Times extols as vital to students' reading progress. Reading well extends beyond the mere decoding of words. Students' "factual knowledge" informs their reading comprehension. Surface knowledge is one thing, but filling in the gaps when reading complex information necessitates knowledge of subtext. As Daniel T. Willingham explains, we can't expect writers to include ALL information necessary for understanding a text: "That would make prose long and tedious for readers who know the information." 

We expect to struggle when reading obscure texts, such as some of Shakespeare's plays and his archaic allusions. This is why glossing matters. But we can't expect every news report or essay to include glosses. As a nation we need some cultural narratives that unite us. At one time our founding documents offered this glue, but many students have little knowledge of these until they take government their senior year, which explains why my former students thanked their government teacher for lessons about the basic knowledge they acquired their senior year.

My takeaway from both the NYT article and the FB quiz is this: What we learn at home, our homeschooling, either establishes a foundation of knowledge on which we build additional knowledge and understanding or puts us at a life-long disadvantage that effects our reading comprehension, and by extension, our ability to think critically, for much of our lives. 

Daniel T. Willingham claims we should "blame ignorance" for poor reading habits and says, "turning the tide will require profound changes in how reading is taught, in standardized testing, and in school curriculums." 

I contend the real change must occur in the home because even when parents aren't teaching their kids in a designated room with a canned curriculum offered through a homeschool consortium, each child gets homeschooled, and passing a Facebook quiz designed to bait those naive enough to think only geniuses score 20/20 won't stem the tide of ignorance or improve reading habits. Only the homeschooling filled with curiosity and books will do that.
It's Tuesday, and that means Slice of Life
Story Challenge w/ the team at Two Writing Teachers. 

Tuesday, December 5, 2017

Fact Over Fake: Teaching Students to Navigate the Fake News Landscape #SOL17

Tuesday means it's time for the Slice of Life
Story Challenge sponsored by the team at
Two Writing Teachers. Thank you, TWT, for promoting
authentic writing for students, teachers, and other members of this community.
A couple of weeks ago my colleague Debbie Greco and co-presenters Ami Szerence and Cherylanne Schmidt presented a session addressing the #FakeNews obsession that has transformed our political conversations and presented unique challenges to those of us teaching students to vet research in academically responsible ways. 

Ami suggested the session and submitted the proposal. Since our initial foray into the Fake News landscape, we've been inundated with materials that others who share our commitment to teaching students to consume research ethically and responsibly. 

Last fall my teaching devolved into lecturing about Fake News, the result of my own frustrations and sense of dismay after the election. 

This year I've taken a much different approach to teaching students about Fake News, and this is what I shared in session J.37 at the NCTE Annual Convention in November. Debbie and I had already shared some lessons during our district's "Pick Your Passion" inservice in November. I then expanded my unit into a bridge for teaching the persuasive speech. 


To introduce students to the unit, I gave students headlines, some of which were true but most fake. I asked students to mill around and share those headlines with one another and discuss. In the session I shared these headlines, which I've compiled in a living Google Slides presentation. 


Next, I introduced my students to the issue of Fake News with a Google Slides presentation that includes some short videos. The version I'm linking to includes learning intentions and my teaching plan. These can be omitted when sharing with students. 


Since I used these resources in my general speech classes, I shared a hyper doc with students, grouped them in ability-balanced groups, and instructed them to use the hyper doc to plan, outline, and present a persuasive speech on Fake News. While I organized the hyper doc to work with a persuasive speech presenting a problem and a solution, it will also work for either expository or persuasive writing. 

To assist students with their collaborations, students worked in a shared Google doc on Google Classroom. During their speeches, students shared speaking duties and were required to attribute their sources. 

One of my classes struggled to organize their thoughts for the group speech, but they all improved their performances during their individual speeches. My other general speech class presented amazing group speeches, and when I thanked them for getting my vision for the assignment, they did something I've rarely seen a class do. They applauded the lesson. 

More than a year ago Donald Trump began screeching "Fake News" whenever he saw or heard a report that raised issues of national and international concern. This past week he began claiming the "Access Hollywood" tape we all heard last year is "fake," that it's not his voice we hear on the tape. Billy Bush responded with a harsh rebuke in the New York Times. 

Meanwhile the December 11, 2017 issue of The New Yorker features a story by Steve Call in which the author contends that the president's attack on the media has strengthened news organizations. Certainly, I've felt compelled to subscribe to some of the publications Trump regularly attacks. 

CNN, the news organization Trump loves to call "fake," pushed back in a clever ad that went viral. It's a stark reminder that "a rose by any other name..." is still a rose, and so is the news. 

And for those looking for more resources designed to help teachers teach students about the landscape of real and fake news, check out THE SIFT.  

The venerable Kathryn Graham, owner of The Washington Post during the Watergate years, spoke about the responsibility of the press in watching over Washington politics:

If we had failed to pursue the facts as far as they led, we would have denied the public any knowledge of an unprecedented scheme of political surveillance and sabotage.

Tuesday, November 28, 2017

Honoring the Navajo Code Talkers: Remarks from President George W. Bush c. 2001 #SOL17

When I learned about President Trump's disrespectful remarks, his disparaging Pocahontas joke on Monday, I felt numb. That I no longer respond to this man with rage speaks to the frequency with which I and many others endure his inelegant rhetoric, his tangled syntax, his tone-deafness. 

I want to lash out at this man and his bull-in-a-China-closet ways. I want to make him listen. I want to shake some sensitivity into his thick, selfish skin. I can't. 

Instead, I decided to do the only thing I know to do: teach. Use this moment as a teachable moment. Honor my Native American students by allowing them to hear the story of this important moment in history. I decided to drown Trump's words with those from a more presidential president. 

On July 21, 2001 President George W. Bush honored the Navajo Code Talkers. His remarks deserve revisiting. They are touching. They are kind. They are respectful. They are presidential. 

To accompany President Bush's speech, I'm also giving students a transcript of it. It's part of the White House archives. Understanding the historical and present context of both presidents' remarks moves students to a vital understanding of public rhetoric, so I'm asking students to SOAPS-Tone  analyze this brief speech. 

I have not yet decided whether or not to have students do this with Trump's speech, but I will show them a clip of his most egregious comments that have garnered widespread condemnation, including from the Native American community. The link from NPR addresses not only Trump's comments but also his repeated disparaging of Pocahontas and Elizabeth Warren.

Additionally, showing students a still from Monday's Oval Office event, which was staged in front of a portrait of Andrew Jackson, the president who signed the Native American Removal Act that ushered in the era of Native American genocide, further informs Trump's tone-deafness and the general cultural insensitivity and ignorance that engulfs the current White House. Again, NPR provides an excellent image from the event and Andrew Jackson's role in The Trail of Tears. And the National Humanities Center provides a good entry into such discussions of "art," including photography. 

Getty Image of Code Talker Oval Office Remarks
For a little fun and to give students a realistic code-talker experience, I may supplement the lesson with an activity from the CIA page on the Navajo Code Talkers Unbreakable Code. 

I hadn't planned to teach a lesson on Navajo Code Talkers to my junior English class, but when ignorance comes knocking, which it does nearly every day Trump tweets or speaks, it's time to break the planned lesson and decode the not so subtle racist rhetoric coming from the White House. 

Tuesday's Slice of Life Story Challenge
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team at Two Writing Teachers.

Tuesday, November 7, 2017

Language to Object: Reading "My Life had stood--a Loaded Gun" by Emily Dickinson in the Aftermath #SOL17

In the aftermath of yet another uniquely American trope, a mass shooting, I found myself thinking about Emily Dickinson's poem #754, "My Life had stood--a Loaded Gun--." The poem's words haunt me, especially the last two lines:

For I have but the power to kill, 
Without--the power to die--

In one of the most poignant critiques of Dickinson's #754, the poet Adrianne Rich contends, "The poet experiences herself as a gun."

Think about that for a moment. In the Nineteenth Century Emily Dickinson, a poet most revered for the ways she redefined American poetry through her use of unusual punctuation, through her free verse structures, and through her themes of nature, love, and God, constructs an extended metaphor of herself as a gun.

My Life had stood--a Loaded Gun--
In Corners--till a Day
The Owner passed--identified--
And carried Me away--

Not only is the speaker in this poem literally a gun, she also possesses power equal to that of a gun. Again, Rich offers an interpretation I find most satisfying in her description of the poem as one "about possession" and "about the danger and risks of possession." 

In Rich's reading, we find a sensual subtext. Our speaker and the gun are one, but the hunter has the power to carry both away.

The poem progresses with this gun-woman and the hunter roaming the woods and experiencing physical awakenings that rival the eruption of Mt. Vesuvius. For the hunter, the woman becomes a protector from his enemies. 

That is, the woman's power far exceeds that of the hunter. Remember, she is the gun. She makes the choices regarding its use. The final stanza clarifies this enigmatic point: 

Though I than He--may longer live
He longer must--than I--
For I have but the power to kill,
Without--the power to die--

In the wake of yet another mass shooting, another suicide by mass killing--for the killer almost always ends up dead, leaving men scratching their heads and pondering his motives--I'm reminded of the power of art as I read #754.

As a poet, Emily Dickinson's art lives on. Today a poem reminds me that it is our artists who own the most power. "This woman poet also perceives herself as a lethal weapon," argues Rich. 

Will we continue to allow an object, a gun, to "have the power to kill, without the power to die"? Or will we embody our power, the power of art and of women who know language is more powerful and love a superior protector. 

Emily Dickinson speaks to us from the Nineteenth Century. A gun will never die, but we can give art more power to live. A gun is nothing more than an object that once possessed has the ultimate power to kill, and in Dickinson's imagination, the gun and its possessor are one, inextricably linked in a uniquely American pattern. 

Tuesday, October 31, 2017

Tipping Points in Teaching: A Reader Response to "Purple Hibiscus" #SOL17

Things started to fall apart at home when my brother, Jaja, did not go to communion and Papa flung his heavy missal across the room and broke the figurines on the etagere. 

Reading the opening sentence of Chimamanda Ngozi Adiche's first novel, Purple Hibiscus, transports readers to an earlier novel by another Nigerian writer; Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe also resonates with common post-colonial themes in its critique of religion, language, violence, traditionalism, family life, etc. 

Nevertheless, it's the idea of tipping points within the novel's circular structure that concerns me as I write this post. As does Achebe, Adiche draws on "The Second Coming" by William Butler Yeats to signal readers her characters will reach a limit, and so our narrator, Kambili, a fourteen-year-old Nigerian girl, returns to Adiche's opening idea that "things fall apart" near the novel's end: 

The next day was Palm Sunday, the day Jaja did not go to communion, the day Papa threw his heavy missal across the room and broke the figurines. 

In the interim, readers learn that both Kambili and Jaja, as well as their mother, have endured physical abuse from their father, Eugene, for many years, but on this Palm Sunday, these characters reach a tipping point. Their lives consumed with fear and silence and secrets, "the center cannot hold." 

The novel resonates with the normalcy of abusive relationships. As one of my students noted in our discussion Monday, we expect Papa to react with violence each time Kambili or Jaja break one of his rules. We've witnessed violence beget violence. Each incident moves readers toward numbness. My student said that the normalcy causes him to begin not caring. I understand his impulse to detach from these characters. We know that abusive relationships embody cycles, and breaking the cycle poses untoward challenges for both victim and abuser. 

At some point in a novel and in life characters and people reach a tipping point, a moment when change is inevitable. This happens in Purple Hibiscus. Our narrator tells us that "things started to fall apart" that Palm Sunday, but Kambili is an unreliable narrator. Her family was on the brink of anarchy long before Palm Sunday, and readers witness Kambili's lost innocence in the ceremony of ritualistic violence.

Today I'm wondering at what point things fall apart for teachers. When do we pass through the ceremony of innocence in our careers? We experience the "turning and turning in the widening gyre," as Yeates describes the movement toward chaos, almost daily, more when we feel overwhelmed by the demands of our jobs. It's during these difficult fall days I ponder: At what point do "the best lack all conviction"?

When Eugene exacts his most violent act against Kambili she curls onto herself: 

I closed my eyes and slipped away into silence.

Silence permeates Purple Hibiscus. Kambili struggles to find her voice. I see this silence in my colleagues. I sense a tipping point when a colleague shares: "I feel like it's never enough." 

Indeed, our profession demands more than expertise in our curriculum and knowledge of pedagogy. We must be all things to all students. Sometimes we're asked the same for and from colleagues.

We talked about efficacy in our most recent PD, but our discussion did not center on what I deem the most important element of efficacy: mastery. Instead, we focused on the cause du jour. Later I learned a colleague had also marked mastery on the handout we'd been asked to read and discuss. During both exchanges--the one during PD and the one with my colleague--I thought about Kambili's silence. I thought about the consequences of silence, both in literature and in our collective teaching life. 

There was so much I wanted to say and so much I did not want to say.  

The Tuesday Slice of Life Story Challenge
originates with the team at Two Writing Teachers.
Head over to their blog to enjoy more slices from
the community of writers. 

Sunday, October 29, 2017

Teaching Argument Refutation Using the Twitter Thread [Lesson Plan: Part 1]

As part of the dual credit Communication 1101 class I teach, students must construct refutation for two of their three speeches. Idaho State University, our partner in the Early College Program, requires students to follow a tightly structure method of refutation. 

This 4-Step Refutative Method poses significant struggle for some students. First, they have little experience addressing positions in opposition to their own. Second, they often get confused about the format of their refutation and the necessity of identifying the methods they use to respond to counter-arguments. Finally, students sometimes think their job is to build an argument agains their own position rather than reconstruct their own argument. 

In my early days of teaching the course, ISU required four speeches of students. I wrote about the refutative speech in an earlier post.  This is a common approach to teaching refutation, as an online guide from the University of Pittsburgh shows.

I use a couple of activities to teach refutation, including an improvisational game; however, recently I've notices an uptick in Twitter threads that incorporate not only the characteristics of good argument but that also embody almost all the characteristics of refutation I require of students. 

To see what I mean, let's first take a look at the 4-Step Refutative Method my students use in their speeches. Since students use a traditional outlining structure, I'll stick to that here. Refutation is part of the third contention in the outline:

III. Statement of opposing argument.
      A. Method of response to the opposing argument.
      B. Research supporting the student's position and that clashes w/ the opposition. 
      C. Impact statement. 

Sometimes students name the position they're refuting in the transition leading to their response. The outline may take on a slightly different structure when students take this approach. This is fine as long as students have all four parts and construct their speeches in such a way that the audience can follow their reasoning. 

Twitter threads also follow the 4-Step Refutative Method when the write of the thread seeks to construct a cogent response to a position s/he wishes to refute. Adam Khan used this method in his response to Sean Hannity's tweet Saturday about the bogus Russian uranium deal. Here's Hannity: 

Guess;Mueller and Media working hand in hand Media to be tipped off. Mueller was FBI Director Who knew of Russian crimes before Uranium one

I've typed Hannity's tweet exactly as he constructed it. As Twitter users know, to respond to a tweet, either when agreeing or disagreeing, one retweets and comments. That results in the response appearing on top of the first tweet, making the original tweet take on a form of hanging indentation. 

A thread will appear in reverse order in its original form. When a Twitter user wants to construct a thread, s/he generally numbers the tweets to aide others in seeing the chronology. This is important because it's common for a thread to be interrupted by others chiming in. Fortunately, this did not happen with Khan's thread.

Khan's response to Hannity does not give his refutative method, but I'd call this initial response denial of Hannity's claim. This is the first tweet in the thread.

But Khan hasn't finished building his response. His second tweet reads:

2. Obama locked down the contract-didn't give Russia a Nuclear Export license-so Putin just can't take the uranium, which is of poor grade. 

Khan implies something important in this tweet: Claims that we sold uranium to Russia are overblown in their impact. He minimizes Hannity's claim, and her offers supporting evidence to support his contention. I particularly like the use of Forbes here because it's a publication that tends to lean a little conservative in its stance. 

Here are screen shots of this and the rest of the thread, which contains eight tweets, and my analysis of each:

I'd characterize the third tweet as an impact statement. That is, why does Khan's response to Hannity matter? What's the ultimate consequence? 

3. The work Mueller and Comey put into nailing Mikerin mean that any Russian attempts to bribe officials will be met with consequences.

Again, Khan offers evidence to support his claim. This time he turns to the Department of Justice for official word on the Mikerin sentencing to emphasize the hardline stance the Obama White House took on this issue. 

But Khan hasn't finished with Hannity, although he could have ended his twitter response after the third tweet since it offers a sufficient counter to Hannity's conspiracy theory. Instead, Khan drives his point home by employing one of my favorite methods of refutation. He turns the tables on Hannity.

4. Mueller's extensive experience with Russian schemes to influence U.S. NatSec is precisely why he was picked to lead this Russia probe.

It isn't clear what source Khan uses here, but it's probably the Forbes article. 

The next two tweets pre-empt a possible Hannity response: 

5. Did Mueller alert CFIUS members reviewing UraniumOne deal about Mikerin? Based on how the contract is structured, it would appear he has.

6. If Mueller didn't alert CFIUS officials, it's possibly because he wanted to quietly trap anyone he suspected of involvement with bribery

Khan recognizes the short attention span Twitter users have as they quickly scroll through their feeds, so he does something every teacher does and something every high school debater does: He reminds us of an earlier tweet and his evidence by retweeting his second tweet in the thread. Again, we see what looks like hanging indentation. 

7. UraniumOne deal happened during US-Russia "reset"-if Putin had any larger plans, contract's language thwarts that

This reminder of the language of his earlier tweet is something I want my students to do in their speeches. That is, I want them to remind students of their logic and reasoning. I want them to use language to connect the dots, so to speak. Often they refer to ideas in their classmates speeches to reenforce their own arguments. That's when I know authentic learning is happening.

To end his twitter rant with a real impact, Khan reminds his followers of the need to attend to our dealings with China as well as Russia. This final tweet signals followers to pay attention to Russia but also to notice what's happening in the Donald Trump White House. 

8. If anything is begging to be looked at more closely, it's why Trump nixed TPP, giving China regional supremacy.

That retweet of himself is from August, but it's a potent reminder to follow the money. And that's how to flip an argument on Twitter and in the classroom.


To reteach the 4-Step Refutative Method, I'll give students a handout with the twitter thread. Next, I'll ask students to turn-and-talk to a partner about the methods of refutation Khan employes. We'll then discuss these methods, as well as the evidence to see if it says what Khan says it says. This is important. Finally, we'll talk about Khan's sources since I expect students to use quality sources of information. 

Since Khan's thread obviously leans left, it's important to give students a chance to talk about how Hannity might respond. The Russia uranium deal reappeared last Sunday when The Hill published a lengthy news article on it. Since that time, the issue has become a favorite diversionary talking point in Trump's tweets and on right-wing talk radio and news shows, such has Sean Hannity's.

As a final classroom talking point, I'll emphasize to my students Khan's retweeting Hannity's claim. I'll draw their attention to this as the only acknowledgment of Hannity's position. This matters because some students think refutation is about offering lots of evidence in response to the opposing position. 


As a baby-boomer, I recognize the clipped nature of a tweet. I acknowledge its inherent limitations as a platform for constructing essays and fully-fleshed arguments. However, my students use Twitter. It is a ubiquitous part of their days. They read the claims of many and give little thought to whether or not the tweet passes the CRAAP test. As a twenty-first century educator, I must find ways to use the tools students love while also teaching them how to construct academic rhetoric that echoes Aristotle's use of ethos, pathos, and logos. 

Wish me luck. I'll let you know how it goes in my next blog post and, of course, in a tweet! 

Tuesday, October 24, 2017

Because Nice Matters #SOL17

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noncommercial reuse.
In our often unkind world, a gentle reminder that small acts of kindness matter can make all the difference in the lives of both students and teachers. Our student government chose BECAUSE NICE MATTERS as the all-school theme this year. 

During our student advisory time Monday, we were tasked with showing a short video created by student government and introducing their peers to this week's focus on the theme. We'll have three week-long theme focuses this year, one each trimester. 

At the end of the video, students were given a "kindness" task to complete. Today's directive asked students to introduce themselves to someone they don't know. In a school of over 1,500 students, this should be an easy task. However, new students often struggle to find a niche in our school. This reality makes me sad, but it is a reality. 

As someone who was once new to Highland, I experienced my own challenges getting to know my colleagues. When I first started at HHS in 1989, only the men spoke to me. I felt like the student in the old film Cipher in the Snow for a long time. All but one of the women in my department refused to speak to me. Years later, I learned why: They thought I'd be one in a long line of debate coaches whom they saw as not doing what they needed to do. I had to prove myself. Only after I stopped coaching did I learn this. It was during a conversation with my department head. She apologized after confessing. 

My early experiences as a new person in my school and community have heightened my sensitivity for new students. Over the years I've tried to offer them words of encouragement and have tried to help them find their place in the school community. 

Jacqueline Woodson's Each Kindness illustrates the importance of showing kindness to new students. Woodson tells the story of a girl who found herself isolated and bullied in her new school. When the teacher demonstrates the ripple effect a small act of kindness has on the world by having students drop a pebble in a pool, the narrator realizes she has no act of kindness to share with her classmates. Her lack of kindness to the new student haunts her, and she looks for an opportunity to rectify it. That opportunity doesn't come. I reviewed the book in this space back in 2012 and return to it often as a reminder that each kindness mattes.

I read Woodson's book to my group of advisory students. One commented, "That's something she'll have to live with all her life." Yes, we have to own our failure to practice kindness. I know this is something I fail at often, and I told my students this. I shared a story from my college days when a friend called me out for it. She was right, and I admitted this to students Monday. 

These days I'm appalled by the meanness I see in the comments on social media and seeping from DT's Twitter feed. I'm appalled by the ad hominem attacks that spew from his mouth. Since the last election cycle, I've thought often about my own failure to be nice all the time, especially since I don't want to be anything like DT. Hate and vitriol also produce ripples. 

"Each little thing we do goes out, like a ripple, into the world," writes Woodson. Imagine the force of those ripples when we all drop a pebble of kindness onto someone every day. 

The Tuesday Slice of Life Story Challenge
originates with the team at Two Writing Teachers.
Head over to their blog to enjoy more slices from
the community of writiers.